Nepal: Lessons from integrating peace, human rights, and civic education into social studies curricula and textbooks

From 2007 to 2012, the Ministry of Education (MoE) of the Government of Nepal worked with Save the Children, UNESCO, and UNICEF to revise the national social studies curriculum. The aim was to promote education for peace, human rights, and civic education (PHRCE) in the wake of a 10-year Maoist insurgency and the transition to a democratic republic. Underlying issues that led to the armed con ict included the exclusion of marginalized groups, with high-caste Hindu elites dominating economic, social, and political power, while Dalits, Muslims, indigenous nationalities, and Madhesi along the border with India were marginalized. The centralized education system, including curriculum content, language of instruction, and access and governance issues, constituted a signi cant source of con ict (Smith, 2013).