This study demonstrates that formal education systems have a vital role to play in building peace in countries affected by armed conflict. Fieldwork conducted in three countries – Guatemala, Nepal, and Liberia – highlights a number of ways in which education is contributing to building the conditions for long-term, positive peace in those countries. The analysis of the report centers around four conflict-transforming concepts that mediate the relationship between education and peace: - Equitable educational inclusion within the formal education system can redress motivations and eliminate opportunities to engage in armed conflict. - School socialization processes can impact social acceptance of and constraints regarding the use of violence. As a result of improved quality and safer, protective learning environments, individuals may have less motivation, as well as fewer opportunities, to engage in armed conflict. - Building up trust and cooperation (social capital) through school-based organizations can rectify grievances over lack of participation and improve relationships between individuals and groups. -The various social benefits of education (including hope and possibilities for the future, as well as improved levels of socio-economic development) can raise the social, direct, and opportunity costs of engaging in armed conflict.