Save the Children’s 2007 publication Last in Line, Last in School exposed the international community’s neglect of education in conflict-affected fragile states (CAFS).Since then, support for education for children living in countries affected by conflict and emergencies has risen up the political agenda, gaining prominence as an issue requiring urgent attention by donors. However, education in these countries continues to be severely underfunded and children in CAFS are still last in line for education.Thirty-seven million children living in CAFS remain out of school, denied their right to education and the opportunity to lift themselves and their communities out of an endless cycle of poverty and conflict. With the capacity of their governments weakened, and education systems destroyed due to years of conflict and crisis, these children face a bleak future without external support. Last in Line, Last in School 2008 demonstrates the urgent need for donors to increase aid for education in CAFS. It highlights the need for an international aid architecture that ensures long-term and sustainable aid for education during periods of conflict and emergency. World leaders have promised to provide education for all children by 2015. Only by taking immediate action to meet the needs of children living in countries affected by conflict and emergencies will they meet this goal.