Children living in countries affected by conflict, fragility, or emergencies are less likely to enrol, continually participate, and complete their basic schooling than their peers living in more stable countries. In these con-texts, there may be few operational schools and inadequate government funding for education, and teachers and education officials may have limited capacity and few training opportunities. Conflicts and emergencies in particular can have wide-ranging impacts on education, from disruption of regular school schedules and destruction of learning materials and schools to the displacement and death of students, teachers and parents. Thus far, however, donors have failed to provide sufficient resources and support to the education of children and youth in these fragile and conflict-affected states. This Policy Outlook outlines seven challenges that need to be addressed and recommendations for a way forward for donors and the international community.