The conflict in Syria is entering its fourth year. Every day the crisis is prolonged, the pain endured by innocent families grows – leaving deep scars that are likely to disfigure the Middle East and beyond for years to come. A region that has suffered more than its share of conflict and displacement is once again wracked by violence, economic hardship and a vast weight of human suffering. Most affected of all are Syria’s children: more than 5 million young lives are at risk of becoming a “lost generation”. This paper focuses on the havoc being wreaked on these children’s hopes of an education – and the likely consequences for the region’s future. It outlines the long-term impact of the collapse in school enrolment inside Syria, the transformation of schools from safe spaces to places of danger, and the heavy burden that more than a million young refugees is placing on school systems in neighbouring countries.