School closures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 have affected nearly 1.6 billion learners across the globe. While the scale of these closures is unprecedented, in recent decades children in many contexts have been out of school for long periods due to other pandemics, disruptions and disasters such as floods, earthquake and conflicts – with marked gender effects. Building on the findings of 154 studies from every region of the world, this study investigates the evidence on the gendered impacts of extended school closures and periods out of school. Through a systematic review of the evidence, it highlights how these can deepen gendered exclusions and vulnerabilities – with the poorest children being the most affected. Undertaken by a team of leading academic experts on gender equality and education, Evidence on the gendered impacts of extended school closures: A systematic review aims to prevent and mitigate adverse outcomes arising from extended periods of time out of school, by ensuring that responses to current and future crises are informed by a solid understanding of their effects on children’s education, health, well-being and protection.