This report provides a rapid summary of country-level responses to the management of school closures in 2020, with a focus on the needs of disadvantaged students and the role of technology. Low-income, middle-income and high-income countries are considered. The authors take a broad view of ‘disadvantage’ recognising that it presents itself in several different forms: socio-economic status, ethnicity, language group, gender, geography (including the challenges of remote rural communities), special educational needs and disability. Some students are subject to multiple disadvantages such as children in poor households with disabilities living in remote locations. The starting point was the collection of Covid-19 country-level response documents curated by IIEP- UNESCO on Planipolis: the portal of national education plans and policies. The authors were also guided by the catalogue of country-level ‘EdTech’ responses to Covid-19 identified by the World Bank. The plans from these sources were supplemented with additional documents found through searches and personal recommendations.
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